Besides those pesky homophones to keep straight (they’re, there, their; to, too, two, etc.), heteronyms add another layer of complexity. They’re spelled the same (or similarly) but pronounced differently and then have different meanings.
- wound (to wind/wrap) / wound (injury): He wound a cloth around the wound.
- produce (to create) / produce (fruits & vegetable): The farmer produced produce.
- lead (to be ahead) / lead (heavy weight): Get the lead out to lead the way.
- dove (a bird) / dove (past tense of dive): The dove dove to safety.
- close (proximity) / close (to shut): She was not close enough to close the window.
- sewer (waste drain pipe) / sewer (one who sews): The seamstress placed an ad for sewers and several sewer plumbers showed up.
There are countless others, but you get the picture. English is tough.